Wen Tianxiang , Duke of Xingguo 文天祥, 1236-1283. Wen Tianxiang is considered one of the most famous symbols of loyalty and patriotism in China. His writings on righteousness are still widely taught in schools today.|
Wen was born in 1236 in Luling (Ji-an), Jiangxi Province during the Song Dynasty. In 1256 he was the top scholar in the imperial examinations and eventually achieved the rank of Prime Minister.
In 1278, Wen was captured by the invading Yuan armies. Kublai Khan offered Wen a post, and ordered him to convince the remaining Song forces to surrender. Wen refused both and suffered for 4 years in a military prison before his execution in 1283. During this time he wrote the famous poems "Song of Righteousness" (Zhengqige), and "Passing Lingdingyang".